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 Copyright © 2019 By Shanghai Science & Technology Development Foundation

BEYOND WORDS, FORWARD WITH PEOPLE

CHINESE INNOVATION BULLETIN

Chang'e No. 4 - Chinese Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP)

Chang'e 4 is a Chinese lunar exploration mission that achieved the first soft landing on the far side of the Moon on January 3 of 2019. A communication relay satelliteQueqiao, was first launched to a halo orbit near the Earth-Moon L2 point in May 2018. The robotic lander and Yutu 2 rover were launched on 7 December 2018 and entered orbit around the Moon on 12 December 2018.

The mission is the follow-up to Chang'e 3, the first Chinese landing on the Moon. The spacecraft was originally built as a backup for Chang'e 3 and became available after Chang'e 3 landed successfully in 2013. The configuration of Chang'e 4 was adjusted to meet new scientific objectives. Like its predecessors, the mission is named after Chang'e, the Chinese Moon goddess.

The Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge (HKZMB) is a bridge–tunnel system, which consists of a series of three cable-stayed bridges and one undersea tunnel, as well as 3 artificial islands, spanning the Lingdingyang channel, that connects Hong Kong with Macau and Zhuhai, three major cities on the Pearl River Delta in China. The 55-kilometre (34 mi) link is expected to cost 110 billion yuan ($15.9 billion).It is among the longest fixed-links in the world and is a major landmark in the area.

Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge (HKZMB)

Quantum Computing

Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena. They are different from binary digital electronic computers based on transistors.Quantum computation uses quantum bits, which can be in superpositions of states.In May 2017,the Chinese Academy of Sciences announced that it has manufactured the world's first light quantum computer that surpasses the earlier classical computer, developed a 10-bit superconducting quantum circuit sample, and succeeded in achieving the world's largest number by high-precision pulse control and global entanglement operations.The "Bose Sampling" speed of this prototype was at least 24,000 times faster than that of any experimental machine before and it was 100 times faster than the first electronic tube computer (ENIAC) and the first transistor computer (TRADIC) in human history.

The Comac C919 is a narrow-body twinjet airliner developed by Chinese aerospace manufacturer 

Comac in accordance with international civil aviation regulations and with independent intellectual property rights. The aircraft, primarily constructed with aluminium alloys, is to be powered by either CFM International LEAP or ACAE CJ-1000A turbofan engines, and can carry 156 to 168 passengers in a normal operating configuration up to 5,555 km. It is intended to compete primarily with the Boeing 737 MAX and Airbus A320. On December 28, 2018, the C919 third aircraft took off from Shanghai Pudong International Airport and completed its first flight. 

Comac  C919

Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment is a China-based multinational particle physics project studying neutrinos.The experiment consists of eight antineutrino detectors, clustered in three locations within 1.9 km of six nuclear reactors. Each detector consists of 20 t of liquid scintillator (linear alkylbenzene doped with gadolinium) surrounded by photomultiplier tubes and shielding.Daya Bay Collaboration measured the anti-neutrino energy spectrum, and found that anti-neutrinos at an energy of around 5 MeV are in excess relative to theoretical expectations. This unexpected disagreement between observation and predictions suggested that the current theory needs improvement.

Tokamak

A tokama is a device that uses a powerful magnetic field to confine a hot plasma in the shape of a torus. The tokamak is one of the several types of magnetic confinement devices being developed to produce controlled thermonuclear fusion power. As of 2016, it is a leading candidate for a practical fusion reactor

Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescope(FAST)

The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST), nicknamed Tianyan ("The Eye of Heaven") is a radio telescope located in the southwest China.It consists of a fixed 500 m (1,600 ft) diameter dish constructed in a natural depression in the landscape. It is the world's largest filled-aperture radio telescope,and the second-largest single-dish aperture after the sparsely-filled RATAN-600 in Russia.

It has a novel design, using an active surface made of metal panels that can be tilted by a computer to help change the focus to different areas of the sky.The cabin containing the feed antenna suspended on cables above the dish is also moved using a digitally-controlled winch by the computer control system to steer the instrument to receive from different directions.

Jiaolong Manned Submersible

Jiaolong is a Chinese manned deep-sea research submersible that can dive to a depth of over 7,000 m. It has the greatest depth range of any manned research vehicle in the world.

Bohai Granary

The Bohai Granary is a huge agricultural science and technology project involving more than 1.1 million square kilometers of land and 260 million people, which account for approximately 13.3% of the country's total land area and 22.2% of the total population. The plan is to achieve the goal of increasing grain output by 6 billion kilograms by 2017 and increasing grain by 10 billion kilograms by 2020 by reclamation of dry land from more than 40 million acres of low-yielding fields and more than 10 million acres of saline-alkali soil in the Bohai Rim area. Saline-Alkali disaster in the Bohai Rim region has been constituted an important "granary" in China.

Renaissance 

Renaissance (Fuxing Hao) is a series of electric multiple unit high-speed trains operated by China Railway Corporation and developed by CRRC, which owns the independent intellectual property rights. Early known as China Standardized EMU, the project development started in 2012, and the plan design was finished in September 2014. The EMU was rolled off the production line on 30 June 2015.It is designated as Fuxing Hao in June 2017, nicknamed "Blue/Red Dolphin" (CR400AF) and "Golden Phoenix". 

Sunway TaihuLight Supercomputer

The Sunway TaihuLight is a Chinese supercomputer which, as of March 2018, is ranked number one in the TOP500 list as the fastest supercomputer in the world, with a LINPACK benchmark rating of 93 petaflops.This is nearly three times as fast as the previous holder of the record, the Tianhe-2, which ran at 34 petaflops. As of June 2017, it is ranked as the 16th most energy-efficient supercomputer in the Green500, with an efficiency of 6.051 GFlops/watt. It was designed by the National Research Center of Parallel Computer Engineering & Technology (NRCPC) and is located at the National Supercomputing Center in Jiangsu province, China.

Artemisinin

Artemisinin and its semi-synthetic derivatives are a group of drugs used against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.It was discovered in 1972 by Tu Youyou, a Chinese scientist, who was awarded half of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Medicine for her discovery.Treatments containing an artemisinin derivative (artemisinin-combination therapies, ACTs) are now standard treatment worldwide for P. falciparum malaria. Artemisinin is isolated from the plant Artemisia annua, sweet wormwood, a herb employed in Chinese traditional medicine. A precursor compound can be produced using genetically engineered yeast.